求一篇关于ERP的英文原文文章3000单词(要带有原文作者),并带有中文翻译

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英文版:
blogs.zdnet/service-oriented/?p=698
中文版:
/articles/view/little/115
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  • 不在乎长相是感觉

    ERP : Business Impact and Measures

    1
    ERP : Business Impact and Measures
    LORIN M. HITT, D.J. WU AND XIAOGE ZHOU
    ABSTRACT: Resource Planning (ERP) software system key
    business and processes within and beyond a firm’s boundary. While the
    business value of ERP have been debated in IT trade
    in the form of or detailed case studies, there is little
    large sample evidence on who adopts ERP and whether the benefits of ERP
    exceed the costs (and risks).
    With multi-year multi-firm ERP and financial data, it is found that larger
    firms (and those with slightly better ) tend to invest in ERP. Even though
    there is a slowdown in business and shortly after the
    , financial markets reward the adopters with higher market
    valuation (as measured by Tobin’s q). Due to the lack of mid- and long-term post
    data, future research on the long run impact of ERP is proposed.
    KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: ERP systems, ROI, analysis.
    2
    I.
    Resource Planning software systems (ERP) encompass a wide range of
    software procts day-to-day business and decision-making. ERP
    serves many instries and numerous areas in an fashion,
    to automate from supply chain , inventory control,
    scheling and proction, sales support, customer
    , financial and cost , human resources and almost any other
    process. ERP systems have become prevalent over the
    last 10 years. The license/ revenue of ERP market was $17.2 billion dollars
    in 1998, it is expected to be $24.3 billion dollars in 2000, and ERP systems have been
    in over 60% of multi-national firms (, 1999). This
    market also cuts across instries – for example, two of the world’s best-known software
    companies, IBM and Microsoft, now run most of their business on software neither of
    them makes, the SAP R/3 ERP package made by SAP AG (O’Leary, 2000).
    The appeal of the ERP systems is clear. While most typically had software
    systems that performed much of the component functions of ERP, the and
    ERP software provides a degree of that was
    difficult and expensive to achieve with , custom-built systems. For example,
    when a enters an order in the field, the can flow
    through to other areas both within and external to the firm. The order might
    trigger an immediate change in proction plans, inventory stock levels or employees’
    scheles, or lead to the automated of invoices and credit for the
    customer and purchase orders from suppliers. In addition to process , the
    ability of ERP systems to timely and accurate also enables
    improved and worker decision-making. Managers can make decisions based
    on current data, while indivial workers can have greater access to ,
    enabling of authority for proction decisions as well as improved
    to customers (O’Leary, 2000).
    3
    of ERP systems requires a in time, money and
    internal resources (Bailey, 1999; White, Clark and Ascarelli, 1997) and is fraught with
    technical and business risk (Austin and Cotteleer, 1999). A typical ERP has a
    total cost of about $15 million (O’Leary, 2000, p. 6) and costs can be as high as 2-3% of
    revenues (Escalle, Cotteleer, and Austin, 1999). takes between 1 and 3 years
    (21 months on average), with benefits starting to accrue in an average of 31 months
    (McAfee, 1999; O’Leary, 2000). ERP are also known to be unusually
    difficult, even when compared to other large-scale systems projects. Part of
    this is e to the of the changes with ERP, the need
    for process redesign of multiple areas within the firm, and the
    need to adapt processes to the of the software.1 There is also a high degree of
    of these projects. While ERP systems are packaged software
    , the majority (~60%) of project cost is devoted to setup, and
    of the software, services typically provided by outside such as
    Andersen or EDS (Dolmetsch et al., 1998; Oesterle, Fleisch and Alt, 2000).2
    Success or failure hinges on the effective among these teams, the business
    knowledge of internal business experts and the technical skills of outside IT
    (Oesterle, Feisch and Alt, 2000). Numerous cases document ERP failures
    (Davenport, 1998; Martin, 1998), some with results.3
    Given the scale of ERP projects as well as the for both large
    successes and failures, it is to expect that ERP have a
    and effect on firm . While both costs and potential benefits are
    1 Thomas Van Weelden, CEO of Allied Waste, noted one of the primary concerns for their
    SAP was, “They [SAP] expect you to change your business to go with the way the
    software works” (Bailey, 1999).
    2 For a typical ERP project cost breaks down as follows: Software Licensing (16%), Hardware (14%),
    (60%), training and other internal staff costs (10%).
    3 The SAP-Siebel- at Hershey was three months behind schele, and Hershey
    officials offered this late as partial for why Hershey missed 10% of its
    expected earnings (Branch, 1999). Geneva Steel (O’Leary, 2000, pp. 39 – 48, 219) declared the
    day after their $8 million SAP system was . FoxMeyer (a 7-billion-dollar company) planned
    $65 million for their SAP ; it claimed in that SAP was one of the reasons that it
    had gone bankrupt, and it is suing both SAP and Andersen (, 1998). It is estimated
    that at least 90% of ERP end up late or over budget (Martin, 1998).
    4
    high, it is not clear whether the net effect results in higher for the firm. In
    addition, because is a difficult and uncertain process, firms that are
    in ERP may gain advantage over other firms that
    are unwilling or unable to make similar changes.
    To date, most of the of the benefits of ERP has been in the form of
    indivial case studies (e.g., Dolmetsch, et al., 1998; Cotteleer, Austin, and Nolan, 1998;
    McAfee, 1999; Gibson, Holland, and Light, 1999; Westerman et al., 1999), proct
    (SAP Press Release) and instry surveys (AT Kearney, 1996, 1998, 2000;
    MSDW CIO Surveys on Software, 1999 - 2001). In this paper, we
    study the and business effects of ERP using a
    unique dataset on firms that have purchased licenses for the SAP R/3 system, the most
    widely adopted ERP package. Our goal is to better the economics of ERP
    , and more broadly, to the of the
    benefits of large-scale systems projects.
    II. Review
    This work draws on two streams of previous : the work on the business value of
    and the more on the value of ERP
    . In this section, we briefly survey each of these areas as they apply to
    our analysis.
    II. A. Business Value of
    There is an extensive the business impact of
    (IT) using a wide variety of and different levels of analysis.
    While work at the economy-wide level has typically shown equivocal results until very
    recently (see e.g., Oliner and Sichel, 1994), research at the firm-level has
    that has a effect on levels,
    growth, and stock market value of firms ( and Hitt, 2000).
    5
    Other research has also found some positive effects on internal metrics such
    as inventory turnover (Barua, Kriebel and , 1995).
    While much is known about the general effect of on ,
    there is less of the value of specific
    and the factors that make a project or system more effective. Previous studies
    found that IT of postal sorting and toll had a effect on
    (, Rajiv and , 1997; , Lerch and
    Mangal, 1997). Benefits were also found in research of the plant level for automated
    machine tools (Kelley, 1994) and for “advanced ”, most of
    which are computer-related (Doms, Dunne and Troske, 1997). , Hitt and
    Yang (2000) found that certain practices such as the increased use of
    skilled workers and and team-based increased the
    value of IT . Using survey data, and Hitt (1995) found that
    firms that invested more heavily in business process redesign and devoted more of their
    IT resources to customer value (e.g. quality, , ) had
    greater and business . All of this research suggests that there
    can be positive benefits from the , process redesign and increased
    or output quality with ERP system , although
    these effects in the specific context of ERP have not been studied .
    II.B. Impact of ERP
    There is a small but growing on the impact of ERP systems; the majority of
    these studies are , cases studies or a of case studies and instry
    surveys (see e.g. McAfee and Upton, 1996; Davenport, 1998; Ross, 1998; AT Kearney,
    1996, 1998, 2000; MSDW CIO Surveys on Software, 1999 - 2001). McAfee
    (1999) studied the impact of ERP systems on self-reported company based
    on a survey of 101 US of SAP R/3 packages. companies
    reported in several areas as a result of their ERP
    , including their ability to provide to customers, cycle times,
    6
    and on-time rates. Gattiker and Goodhue (2000) group the of ERP
    benefits into four : (1) improve flow across sub-units,
    and and better ; (2)
    enabling of such as account payable and payroll;
    (3) rece IS costs and increase the ability to deploy new IS ;
    (4) ERP may be in moving a firm away from business processes
    and toward accepted best of practice processes. A model based on
    theory (Galbraith, 1974) has been developed to explain the costs
    and benefits of ERP impact and validated using two case studies. They argue that some
    firms (the “swans”) would enjoy these ERP benefits, however,
    others (the “cks”) might not be able to benefit from such ERP e to
    firm- and site-specific (Gattiker and Goodhue, 2000).
    The above studies on the impact of ERP systems suggest that there are
    benefits for firms that ERP systems, though there is
    little in terms of broad sample evidence (Ragowsky and Somers, 2000). We
    note here the of ERP impact has started to attract more attention from the
    academics, a few special issues of leading academic journals have been edited or
    (e.g., Gable and Vitale, 2000; Sarkis and , 2001).
    III. Data, Methods and
    III. A. Data
    Our analysis leverages and extends existing data on ,
    used by and Hitt (2000) for the study of IT and
    growth.4 We combine this database on IT and other financial measures with new data on
    the adoption of ERP by large firms. this study, large firms are defined as
    4 These data have been used for related work by and Yang (1998); Bresnahan,
    and Hitt (2000) and , Hitt and Yang (2000).
    7
    either all publicly traded firms on Compustat or the Fortune 1000. Details on each of
    these data sources appear below.
    III. A. 1. ERP Adoption
    Our primary data and unique data source is a record of all license for the SAP
    R/3 system sold by SAP America over the time period 1986 to 1998 – this is a
    sales database used to record the number of licenses sold. When a firm purchases a
    license from SAP, pricing is based on the number of “seats” (in addition to an up front
    basic license fee), which represent the number of users that the system will
    support. The SAP system is molar, in the sense that each of the moles
    (e.g., proction planning, sales and , financial , human resources)
    can be installed or not at the firms’ without licensing fees, but SAP
    does track which moles are installed.
    Our data includes the name of the firm that purchased the license, the location where the
    system was installed, the date of the original purchase, the date the was
    completed and the system went live, and the moles that are active for each location.
    While there are over 40 moles or of moles in the system, they can be
    broadly grouped into 5 primary areas: , finance, human resources, project
    , and systems.5 We will utilize these groupings for some of our
    analyses. The data is at the level of indivial sites, while our other data is at
    the level of the firm – we therefore aggregate the data to the firm level for many of our
    analysis (details of the are specific to each analysis and will be described
    later). We then match the aggregate data to Compustat and the Computer
    database (described below). This limits the analysis to firms that are publicly
    traded in the US, but using this method we are able to match 70% of all firms in the
    database.
    5 The systems mole includes protocol interface (APIs) and other basis
    , database procts, business and related data mining .
    8
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